Saturday, March 10, 2012

La reforma incompleta

En pocos días el Ejecutivo cumplirá su promesa de entregarle al Congreso una propuesta de reforma del sistema de pensiones en el Perú. El diagnóstico es clarísimo. La mayoría de los trabajadores (7 de cada 10) no tienen acceso a una pensión luego de cumplir su edad de jubilación. Esto no es una falla del sistema privado o del sistema público de pensiones. Esto es una característica de nuestro mercado de trabajo. La gran mayoría de los trabajadores en el Perú no tienen empleos permanentes y formales durante toda su vida laboral. Esta baja frecuencia de cotizaciones hará que las pensiones sean bajas porque simplemente se ahorró poco y tarde. Frente a esto uno puede mirar los sistemas previsionales (privado y público) y darles con palo por múltiples razones. El punto que quiero quede meridianamente claro es que es inútil buscar ampliar la cobertura con pequeñas modificaciones a los actuales sistemas. Esos 7 de cada 10 trabajadores que hoy no tienen cobertura no se afiliarán mágicamente a algún sistema previsional aportando su plata. Si pensamos así es porque en realidad no estamos pensando. Es cierto que hay mucho espacio para mejorar lo que hoy tenemos en el sistema privado. Pero si el foco de la reforma se queda exclusivamente en el sistema privado estaremos dejando pasar como normal que más de la mitad de los actuales afiliados al sistema público al momento de jubilarse recibirán una notificación diciendo que no les corresponde pensión, pues no alcanzaron a tener suficientes años de aporte. Así como lo lee. Ese sistema es regresivo, pues con los aportes de personas de bajos ingresos se subsidia a otros de ingresos más altos o al menos más regulares. Si la reforma sólo se concentra en el sistema privado de pensiones será una reforma incompleta. Irrelevante para la gran mayoría de los trabajadores en el Perú y positiva para una minoría. Será un muy buen primer paso en mejorar el sistema que debería ser la base de cualquier reforma mayor. En el camino, se puede diseñar un sistema que ofrezca una protección mínima a aquellos que hoy no tienen nada. La responsabilidad de la política pública es pensar en el problema mayor, no sólo en el que se puede resolver. Publicado en El Comercio, Marzo 10, 2012

75 comments:

Nico said...

Quizá mi consulta no vapor el tema expuesto. ¿ Podría emitir un comentario de la Neuroeconomía?

Gracias

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